- Name :Black Rice Extract Anthocyanidins
- Source: Black Rice
- Botanical Name :Oryza Sativa Linne
- Extract part: Seed
- Composition :Anthocyanidins
- Identification measure :UV-VIS
- Appearance: Fine Reddish powder
Country of origin:P.R. China
Black rice is the common English name of a range of rice types of the Oryza Sativa Linne,it is also called as longevity rice and purple rice.Oryza Sativa Linne named as black rice or purple rice for its deep black color and usually turns deep purple when cooked.
Black rice also called longevity rice because it is high in nutritional value and is a source of iron, vitamin E, and antioxidants that more abundant than blueberries. The contains one of the highest levels of anthocyanin antioxidants found in food.The dark purple color of the grain and bran hull of black rice is primarily due to its anthocyanin content , which one of the highest by weight than that of other colored grains. Black glutinous rice or sweet black rice is a type of black rice which is short grained and viscous when cooked.The grain has a similar amount of fiber to brown rice and, like brown rice, has a mild, nutty taste.In China, black rice is claimed to be good for the kidney, stomach and liver.
Black rice contains essential amino acid like lysine, Tryptophan; vitamins such as vitamin B1, vitamin B2, folic acid; and is a good source of minerals including iron, zinc, calcium and phosphorus.
Black rice contains anthocyanidins ,a natural antioxidant that that are responsible for the pigmentation of various fruits and vegetables. Anthoyanidins exerts multiple phytochemical properties associated with antioxidant activities .
Researches indicated black rice contains high level of Anthocyanin that attributed to many physiological functions of black rice.A study group investigated the reactive oxygen species suppressing activities of Anthocyanin components extracted from black rice .Their report on J Agric Food Chem indicated that in vitro model systems black rice extract exhibited marked antioxidant activities and free radical scavenging capacities ,prevent supercoiled DNA strand scission and suppress the oxidative modification of human low-density lipoprotein .
Later on a research reported on Journal of Medicinal Food determined that black rice extract obtains similar superoxide scavenging and crocin bleaching activities than blueberry extract and approximately two times stronger hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than blueberry extract .Due to the potent antioxidant activities of black rice ,it has been used for health promoting and also used in many skin care products as its antioxidants help to prevent premature ageing .
Black rice has been found to attenuates hepatic steatosis .In a high-fat diet-fed mice model study ,the effects of black rice extract(BRE) on hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance were examined .The report published on Nutrition & Metabolism in 2012 determined that supplementary BRE included in the high fat diet (HF) alleviated hepatic steatosis and significantly decreased serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels .Dietary BRE also increased expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1A),acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), cytochrome P450 (CYP4A10), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-a .Report conclude that BRE-supplemented diet could be useful in reducing the risks of hepatic steatosis and related disorders, including hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.
Black rice (Oryza sativa L.) is often associated with blood lipid control. A study on Food Funct assessed the inhibition activity of black rice upon cholesterol absorption in vitro .The study result showed that black rice extracts (BRE)caused the reduction of cholesterol absorption by inhibiting pancreatic lipase, decreasing the micellar cholesterol solubility and suppressing cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-G) and peonidin-3-glucoside (Pn-3-G)) contents of the extracts. Further exploration suggested a potential mechanism of cholesterol reduction of black rice is the anthocyanins activtiy of precipitation of cholesterol from micellar solution, which may induce the reduction of cholesterol. In Caco-2 cells, Cy-3-G and Pn-3-G (40 μg mL(-1)) exhibited a significant reduction in cholesterol uptake, and the degree of this reduction was almost the same as that observed in the group treated with Ezetimibe at the same concentration. These findings provide important evidence that anthocyanins may partly contribute to the inhibitory effects of black rice on cholesterol absorption, and thus may be applied for the prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolaemia.
Attribute to its high nutrient value and low calorie content ,black rice has been introduced in healthy diet .Recently scientific study was conducted to experimentally examine the anti-obesity activity of black rice in ob/ob Mice.The scientists reported on The FASEB Journal that during the 14 weeks experiment although there was no difference in body weight among testing group ,the body fat ,blood glucose and the liver weights of black rice fed ob/ob mice were significantly lower than those of control group .The study suggests biological functions of black rice with giant embryo against obesity and related metabolic disorder in mice.
Researches found black rice obtained cancer inhibiting property .In 2006 Chemico-Biological Interactions reported molecular evidence associated with the anti-metastatic effects of peonidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside, major anthocyanins extracted from black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), by showing a marked inhibition on the invasion and motility of SKHep-1 cells. Peonidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside also exerted an inhibitory effect on the DNA binding activity and the nuclear translocation of AP-1. Furthermore, these compounds also exerted an inhibitory effect of cell invasion on various cancer cells (SCC-4, Huh-7, and HeLa). Further evidence provided by report on Nutr Cancer that anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice exert significant anticancer effects against human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis and suppressing angiogenesis.Another experiment published on Molecular Nutrition & Food Research showed that in 2 weeks time black rice reduce 35% tumor mass in CT-26 cancer cells intracutaneously inoculated mouse.Report suggested that tumor inhibition was associated with increases in cytolytic activity of splenic natural killer (NK) cells; partial restoration of nitric oxide production and phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages; increases in released tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from macrophages; increases in infiltration of leukocyte into the tumor; and reduction in angiogenesis inside the tumor.
Studies have shown that black rice may help to alleviate the inflammation that occurs in allergies and other illnesses. The bran or outer husk of the rice may help to restrict the release of histamine. Histamine is responsible for the symptoms of allergies. Black rice also helps to soothe the irritation and swelling that occurs due to allergic contact dermatitis. Therefore black rice is an important food for those who suffer from any type of chronic inflammation.
Black rice contains low quantities of sugar and also contains beneficial plant compounds and fiber which are known to protect the body from diabetes and cancers. It does not trigger fluctuations in blood glucose levels that white rice tends to cause. Black rice also contains essential minerals which help to regulate blood pressure. Therefore diabetics stand to benefit considerably by including black rice in their diet.
Applied in food field, it aslo can be used as food additive and colorant;
Applied in health product field, black rice extract anthocyanidin capsule supply a new way to treat atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease;
Applied in cosmetic field, anthocyanidin is mainly used as antioxidant, preventing UV radiation.