Centella Extract Asiaticosides
- Product Description:
- Name :Centella Extract Asiaticosides
- Source: Gotu Kola
- Botanical Name :Centella asiatica L.
- Extract part: Whole plant
- Composition :Asiaticosides
- Identification measure :HPLC
- Appearance: Fine White to creamy powder
Country of origin:P.R. China
Centella or cotu kola is commonly referred to a small, herbaceous, frost-tender perennial plant named Centella asiatica from the subfamily Mackinlayoideae of family Apiaceae . It is also known as the Asiatic pennywort orIndian pennywort in English.Centella asiatica,a Asian native plant ,is distributed widely in many parts of the world, including India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, South Africa, Australia, China, and Japan.The plant has been used to treat many conditions for thousands of years in India, China, and Indonesia.Historically, gotu kola has also been used to treat syphilis, hepatitis, stomach ulcers, mental fatigue, epilepsy, diarrhea, fever, and asthma. Today, in the U.S. and Europe Centella is most often used to treat varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency, a condition where blood pools in the legs. It is also used in ointments to treat psoriasis and help heal minor wounds.
Centella asiatica contains many phytochemical included terpenes (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, tetraterpenes), phenolic compounds (flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, tannins), polyacetylenes group, alkaloids, carbohydrates, vitamin, mineral and amino acid.
The primary active constituents of CA are saponins (also called triterpenoids), which include asiaticosides,in which a trisaccharide moiety is linked to the aglycone asiatic acid, madecassoside and madasiatic acid. These triterpene saponins and their sapogenins are mainly responsible for the wound healing and vascular effects by inhibiting the production of collagen at the wound site.
Wound healing properties
As an universal use in wound healing and various skin disorders,effectiveness of the extracts and monomers from Centella asiatica(CA) has been subjected to and justified by both experimental and clinical evaluations .
Extracts of CA have been shown to produce different actions on the various phases of wound repair.Scientific studies proved in animal and lab studies that triterpenes from CA
stimulated extracellular matrix accumulation,as further evidenced in vitro by geneexpression alternation in a human dermal fibroblast. For example, some studies suggest that triterpenoids strengthen the skin, boost antioxidants in wounds, and increase blood supply to the area.
Moreover ,Asiatic acid was found to be the only component responsible for the collagen synthesis stimulation,while madecassoside was able to increase significantly collagen Ⅲ secretion.
Advanced studies indicated that asiaticoside induced type I collagen synthesis via the activation of the TGFβ receptor I kinase independent Smad pathway ,which forged a basis for molecular understanding of Centella’s bioactivity on wound healing.
Based on these findings, Centella has been applied to the skin, or used topically, for minor burns, psoriasis, preventing scars after surgery, and preventing or reducing stretch marks.
Brain stimulating effects
In Chinese and Indian medicine system,Centella asiatica(CA) is commonly described to possesses various central nervous system effects especially memory improvement and intelligence promoting property.Therefore ,scientists has been investigated the potential use of CA in Alzheimer’s disease (AD).One study published on International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease in 2012 exhibited that in vitro ,water extract of CA(GKW) protected SH-SY5Y cells and MC65 human neuroblastoma cells from toxicity induced by exogenously added and endogenously generated β-amyloid, respectively.GKW also prevented intracellular β-amyloid aggregate formation in MC65 cells .These providing evidence showed the effect of this Centella asiatica extract on the brain regions involved in learning and memory ,moreover ,found a novel active compounds of potential relevance to the treatment of AD.
Sedative and anxiolytic properties
CA was described to possess central nervous system ameliorative effects in many Eastern medical system.Researchers believe the anxiolytic activity is considered to be, in part due to binding to cholecystokinin receptors (CCK B ), a group of G protein coupled receptors which bind the peptide hormones cholesystokinin (CCK) or gastrin and were thought to play a potential role in modulation of anxiety, nociception, memory and hunger in animals and humans.As a result the effect of CA was postulated mainly due to the brahmoside and brahminoside constituents such as triterpenoids.Triterpenoids is seem to reduce anxiety and increase mental function in mice. One human study found that people who took CA were less likely to be startled by a new noise than those who took placebo. These finding suggested triterpenoids seem to reduce anxiety and increase mental function .
Venous insufficiency and varicose veins
A scientific review published on Evid Based Complement Alternat Med concluded that CA may be beneficial for improving signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). The pooling of data of similar studies showed that CA significantly improved microcirculatory parameters such as transcutaneous partial pressure of CO2 and O2, rate of ankle swelling and venoarteriolar response.In a multicenter, double-blind versus placebo study of 94 people with venous insufficiency,those who took CA saw their symptoms improve compared to those who took placebo. In another study of people with varicose veins, ultrasound tests showed that people who took CA had less leakage of fluid.One study also found that people who took gotu kola before flying had less ankle and leg swelling than those who did not take it.
CA has been drawing attention due to its potential bioactive molecules against tumor.According to the report on Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine investigations found crude extract of CA as well as its partially purified fractions exhibited selective cytotoxicity in vitro and antitumour properties in vivo.
Synergistic inhibitory effect of asiaticoside combined with vincristine on proliferation of several cancer cell lines was also reported,showing asiaticoside as a biochemical modulator can induce apoptosis.Besides,the water extract of CA was displayed to exert a chemopreventive effect on colon tumorigenesis.Furthermore,asiatic acid was suggested to be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
Actions on gastric ulcer
Many scientific findings suggest the potential use of CA and its active ingredient as antigastric-ulcers drugs.In a rats study conducted in 2004 , the gastric ulcers healing effects of Centella asiatica water extract (CE) and asiaticoside (AC), an active constituent of CE were examined.And it was indicated the healing effects of CA water extract and AC on acetic acid induced gastric ulcers in rats,by significantly attenuating the myeloperoxidase activity ,promoting epithelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis,and upregulating expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in the ulcer tissues,therefore strengthening the mucosal defensive factors.
CA extract was also reported to show antiulcerogenic activity against various physical and chemical factors,such as ethanol,aspirin, cold restraint stress and pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcers in rats .In addition,study showed that CA water extract and asiaticoside have an antiinflammatory property that is brought about by inhibition of NO synthesis and thus facilitates ulcer healing ．
Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory properties
Researches showed that CA possess antinociception activity on animals.The antinociceptive activity of the aqueous CA extract was examined using acetic acidinduced writhing and hot-plate method in mice .The antiinflammatory activity of CA was studied in rats by prostaglandin E2-induced paw edema.The study reported on Indian Journal of Pharmacology that Water extract of CA revealed significant antinociceptive activity with both the models. The activity was statistically similar to aspirin but less potent than morphine. The CA extract also revealed significant antiinflammatory activity. This effect was statistically similar to the non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, mefenamic acid.These results suggested that the aqueous CA extracts possesses antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities which justified the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of inflammatory conditions or rheumatism.Further researches conducted to investigate antirheumatoid arthritic effect of madecassoside, a triterpenoid saponin occurring in Centella asiatica, in type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice .Study showed Madecassoside substantially prevented mouse CIA, and might be the major active constituent of CA responsible for its clinical uses in rheumatoid arthritis and that the underlying mechanisms of action may be mainly through regulating the abnormal humoral and cellular immunity as well as protecting from joint destruction.
Historically, gotu kola has also been used to treat syphilis, hepatitis, stomach ulcers, mental fatigue, epilepsy, diarrhea, fever, and asthma. Today, in the U.S. and Europe gotu kola is most often used to treat varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency, a condition where blood pools in the legs. It is also used in ointments to treat psoriasis and help heal minor wounds.It also has potential applications in phytopharmacy for its wound healing,brain stimulating,sedative and anxiolytic,venous insufficiency improving ,
Anticancer,gastric ulcer preventing ,antinociceptive and antiinflammatory properties .